DEPARTMENT OF SOIL & WATER CONSERVATION, PUNJAB

 

PUNJAB WATERS

 

GROUND WATER DEVELOPMENT AND POTENTIAL

            The Annual gross replenishable ground water resources in Punjab state as on 01-4-1998 is 18192 MCM, the highest being 3023.8 MCM in Ferozepur district and the least in Kapurthala district being 359.70 MCM. The net ground water draft in the State is 16101.95 MCM, the highest being 2120.75 MCM in Sangrur district and 140.61 MCM, the lowest in Muktsar district. The ground water balance has been worked out at administrative block levels and then added to obtain district wise figures. The over exploitation committee has suggested that only 85% of the gross recharge may be considered for utilization for irrigation purposes. However, in the case of Punjab, this has been taken as 90%. Thus in Punjab, the available ground water resources for irrigation work out to be 16373 MCM and 16102 MCM is the net draft thus leaving a ground water balance of 271 MCM at 90% utilization.The level of ground water development is worked out by determining the percentage of draft with respect to utilizable recharge and is equal to 98% for Punjab. The level of development is not uniform in the state and varies from 14.12% in Muktsar district to 251.86% in Moga district. The districts of Amritsar, Fatehgarh Sahib, Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Ludhiana, Moga, Patiala and Sangrur are over developed and fall in the Dark Category (stage of ground water development more than 85%). In the districts of Nawanshahr, the state of ground water development is 97%. The Bathinda and Gurdaspur districts falls under 'Grey' Category (ground water development between 65% and 85%) and Ropar, Muktsar, Mansa, Faridkot, Ferozepur and Hoshiarpur districts comes under 'White' category as the state of ground water development is less than 65%.The potential available for ground water development in various districts is Bathinda 144.94 MCM, Faridkot 256.37 MCM, Ferozepur 974.55 MCM, Gurdaspur 450.83, Hoshiarpur 541.85 MCM, Ropar 264.13 MCM, Mansa 451.24 MCM, Muktsar 854.93 MCM, Nawanshahr 11.71 MCM.

            Based on the ground water balance available in some blocks in the state, the number of additional shallow tubewells feasible has been depicted in the table. Thus additional shallow tubewells of about 50m depth and having a single line assembly of 150 to 200 mm diameter, can be constructed in the districts of Ropar, Hoshiarpur, Bathinda, Mansa, Muktsar, Faridkot, Ferozepur and Gurdaspur.

TABLE : Districtwise ground water assessment for Punjab State

S.No District Utilizable GW Resources Net Draft    

 

G.W. Balance %age of Development Category

 

Unit MCM MCM MCM    

1)   

Amritsar

1611.54

1797.88

-186.34

111.6

Over exploited

2)   

Bathinda

502.04

357.1

144.94

71.1

Grey

3)   

Faridkot

530.74

265.37

265.37

50

White

4)   

Fatehgarh Sb.

384.58

542.22

-157.64

141

Over exploited

5)   

Ferozepur

2721.39

1746.84

974.55

64.2

White

6)   

Gurdaspur

1544

1093.17

450.83

70.8

Grey

7)   

Hoshiarpur

972.86

431.01

541.85

44.3

White

8)   

Jalandhar

648.71

1280.15

-631.44

197.3

Over exploited

9)   

Kapurthala

323.73

811.29

-487.56

250.6

Over exploited

10)   

Ludhiana

1499.89

2044.94

-545.05

136.3

Over exploited

11)   

Mansa

735.49

284.25

451.24

38.6

White

12)   

Moga

426.77

1074.86

-648.09

251.8

Over exploited

13)   

Muktsar

995.54

140.61

854.93

14.1

White

14)   

Nawanshahr

396.48

384.77

11.71

97

Dark

15)   

Patiala

1165.38

1443.43

-278.05

123.8

Over exploited

16)   

Ropar

547.44

283.31

264.13

51.7

White

17)   

Sangrur

1366.38

2120.75

-754.37

155.2

Over exploited

STATE TOTAL

16372.96

16101.95

271.01

98.3

 

 

            GROUND WATER ABSTRACTION STRUCTURES

           In Punjab State, there are shallow and deep tubewells. The shallow tubewells for irrigation are owned by the individual farmers and operation & maintenance of deep tubewells for providing direct irrigation is with the Punjab State Tubewell Corporation. Some of the shallow tubewells are also owned by the private users for drinking/ industrial purposes (The figures not available). Deep tubewells for irrigation also have been got constructed by the farmers (Figures not available) and farmers societies. Besides this deep tubewells are also owned by the Public Health (R.W.S.) branch of P.W.D. and Municipal Corporation. The net area irrigated by shallow tubewells is 2.5 m ha and deep tubewells 1.6 m.ha. Shallow tubewells form the bulk of all ground water structures in the state. There are 9,95,950 shallow tubewells and 3162 deep tubewells (1647 irrigation wells and 1515 tubewells for rural water supply). The number of tubewells has a large variation over the state. Sangrur district has the largest number of ground water structures (1,09,156) and Muktsar the least (16,350). The density i.e. ground water structures per sq. km. also varies from area to area and it is largest for district Moga (38/sq.km.) and least for Muktsar district (6/sq.km.). The density of ground water structures is less than 10/sq.km. in Ropar, Bathinda and Muktsar districts, between 10-20 per sq.km. in Hoshiarpur, Gurdaspur, Amritsar, Faridkot and Ferozepur districts. In districts Kapurthala, Jalandhar, Nawanshahr, Ludhiana, Fatehgarh Sahib, Patiala and Sangrur it varies from 20-30 per sq.km.

STATUS OF GROUND WATER DEVELOPMENT (AS ON 01-04-1998)

             The ground water resource for the state have been worked out on blockwise basis and categorised based on ground water development in the block.

 

TABLE-  Block wise details of utilizable resource, net draft, level of development and category.

 

S.No.

District/ Block

Utilisable GW Res. Potential For Irrigation MCM

Net

Draft

MCM

Balance Irrigation Potential

MCM

Level of GW dev. %as on 1/4/98

Category

AMRITSAR

1)       

Patti

92.34

91.97

0.37

99.6

Dark

2)       

Gandiwind

118.09

139.87

-21.78

118.44

O.E.

3)       

Naushera Pannu

83.1

76.59

6.51

92.17

Dark

4)       

Chogawan

151.5

127.05

24.45

83.86

Grey

5)       

Rayya

91.08

127.42

-36.34

139.9

O.E.

6)       

Ajnala

89.85

143.97

-54.12

160.2

O.E.

7)       

Verka

108.19

108.81

-0.62

100.57

O.E.

8)       

Taran taran

90.75

161.6

-70.85

178.1

O.E.

9)       

Khadoor Sahib

121.41

109.47

11.94

90.1

Dark

10)   

Valtoha

74.92

103.22

-28.3

137.77

O.E.

11)   

Majitha

141.12

101.82

39.3

72.15

Grey

12)   

Tarsika

83.66

106.37

-22.71

127.15

O.E.

13)   

Chola Sahib

79.03

56.23

22.8

71.15

Grey

14)   

Jandiala

79.64

100.46

-20.82

126.14

O.E.

15)   

Bhikiwind

139.82

160.45

-20.63

114.75

O.E.

16)   

Harsha Chhina

67.04

82.58

-15.54

123.18

O.E.

TOTAL

1611.54

1797.88

-186.34

111.56

O.E.

BATHINDA

 

 

 

 

 

1)       

Rampura

92.19

64.92

27.27

70.42

Grey

2)       

Talwandisabo

34.4

6.82

27.58

19.83

White

3)       

Sangat

54.91

9.5

45.41

17.43

White

4)       

Bathinda

131.22

55.38

75.84

42.2

White

5)       

Nathana

107.33

62.5

44.83

58.23

White

6)       

Phul. East

76.18

153.32

-77.14

201.26

O.E.

7)       

Maur

5.81

4.66

1.15

80.21

Grey

 

TOTAL

502.04

357.1

144.94

71.13

Grey

GURDASPUR

 

 

 

 

 

1)       

D.Babananak

102

128.73

-26.73

126.21

O.E.

2)       

Narot.J.Singh

66.88

12.85

54.03

19.21

White

3)       

Dinanagar

128.42

55.54

72.88

43.25

White

4)       

Dharkalan

61.16

1.91

59.25

3.12

White

5)       

Kahnuwan

143.83

117.59

26.24

81.76

Grey

6)       

Dhariwal

175.24

126.7

48.54

72.3

Grey

7)       

Gurdaspur

165.79

122.87

42.92

74.11

Grey

8)       

Bamial

18.23

1.3

16.93

7.13

White

9)       

Fatehgarh Churian

125.6

94.24

31.36

75.03

Grey

10)   

Pathankot

192.58

30.99

161.59

16.1

White

11)   

Kalanaur

73.61

98.14

-24.53

133.32

O.E.

12)   

Sri Hargobindpur

98.15

96.02

2.13

97.83

Dark

13)   

Batala

131.89

145.08

-13.19

110.0

O.E.

14)   

Qadian

60.62

61.21

-0.59

101

O.E.

TOTAL

1544

1093.17

450.83

70.8

Grey

HOSHIARPUR

 

 

 

 

 

1)       

Tanda

93.63

85.36

8.27

91.17

Dark

2)       

Dasuya

168.74

94.76

73.98

44.3

White

3)       

Bhunga

113.34

41.71

71.63

66.8

Grey

4)       

Hoshiarpur

88.93

50.83

38.1

57.16

White

5)       

Mukerian

231.38

36.1

195.28

15.6

White

6)       

Mahilpur

61.13

33.94

27.19

55.52

White

7)       

Garhshankar

64.34

41.4

22.94

64.35

White

8)       

Hazipur

29.05

1.3

27.75

4.48

White

9)       

Talwara

13.6

2.34

11.26

17.21

White

10)   

Bajwara

108.72

43.27

65.45

39.8

White

TOTAL

972.86

431.01

541.85

44.3

White

FARIDKOT

 

 

 

 

1)       

Kotkapura

229.32

110.98

118.34

48.4

White

2)       

Faridkot

301.42

154.39

147.03

51.22

White

TOTAL

530.74

265.37

265.37

50

White

FATEHGARH SAHIB

 

 

 

 

1)       

Bassipathana

51.79

73.14

-21.35

141.22

O.E.

2)       

Sirhind

183.25

189.97

-6.72

103.67

O.E.

3)       

Amloh

66.18

113.25

-47.07

171.12

O.E.

4)       

Khera

42.64

70.96

-28.32

166.42

O.E.

5)       

Khamano

40.72

94.9

-54.18

233.06

O.E.

TOTAL

384.58

542.22

-157.64

141

O.E.

FEROZEPUR

 

 

 

 

 

1)       

Fazilka

388.12

149.2

238.92

38.44

White

2)       

Ghalkhurd

177.17

207.59

-30.42

117.17

O.E.

3)       

Maku

104.29

139.36

-35.07

133.63

O.E.

4)       

Jalalabad

330

206.29

123.71

65.54

Grey

5)       

Dharamkot

328.62

273.9

54.72

45.05

White

6)       

Guruharsahai

440.75

198.59

242.16

45.05

White

7)       

Ferozepur

171.48

178.07

-6.59

18.17

White

8)       

Khuianserver

201.1

30.16

170.96

14.99

White

9)       

Abohar

131.35

36.07

95.28

27.46

White

10)   

Zira

274.55

185.12

89.43

67.64

Grey

11)   

Mamdot

173.95

142.49

31.45

81.91

Grey

TOTAL

2721.39

1746.84

974.55

64.19

White

JALANDHAR

 

 

 

 

1)       

Nurmahal

73.06

135.49

-62.43

185.48

O.E.

2)       

Jal. East

64.22

99.51

-35.29

154.98

O.E.

3)       

Jal. West

111.89

132.87

-20.98

118.75

O.E.

4)       

Shahkot

46.11

107.3

-61.19

232.74

O.E.

5)       

Bhogpur

37.9

108.72

-70.82

286.86

O.E.

6)       

Adampur

58.03

108.28

-50.25

186.59

O.E.

7)       

Nakodar

77.81

224.43

-146.62

257.55

O.E.

8)       

Phillaur

86.14

125.34

-38.2

143.83

O.E.

9)       

Goraya

61.02

113.19

-52.17

185.49

O.E.

10)   

Lohian

31.53

125.02

-93.49

396.51

O.E.

TOTAL

648.71

1280.15

-631.44

197.33

O.E.

KAPURTHALA

 

 

 

 

 

1)       

Phagwara

70.96

105.48

-34.52

148.65

O.E.

2)       

Kapurthala

84.9

225.72

-140.82

265.87

O.E.

3)       

Sultanpur

62.88

215.07

-152.19

342.03

O.E.

4)       

Bholath

41.72

123.71

-81.99

296.52

O.E.

5)       

Dhilwan

63.27

141.31

-78.04

223.34

O.E.

TOTAL

323.73

811.29

-487.56

250.61

O.E.

LUDHIANA

 

 

 

 

 

1)       

Ludhiana

129.43

214.43

-85.04

165.7

O.E.

2)       

Dehlon

146.07

129.36

16.71

88.56

Dark

3)       

Doraha

195.12

239.31

-44.19

122.65

O.E.

4)       

Machhiwara

216.61

157.47

59.14

72.7

Grey

5)       

Samrala

58.78

67.06

-8.28

114.08

O.E.

6)       

Mangat

127.42

213.76

-86.34

167.76

O.E.

7)       

Jagraon

158.48

301.67

-143.19

190.35

O.E.

8)       

Sidhwanbet

183.49

167.58

15.91

91.33

Dark

9)       

Pakhowal

106.96

197.39

-90.43

184.55

O.E.

10)   

Sudhar

104.41

197.16

-92.75

188.83

O.E.

11)   

Khanna

73.12

159.71

-86.59

18.42

O.E.

TOTAL

1499.89

2044.94

-545.05

136.34

O.E.

MANSA

 

 

 

 

 

1)       

Jhunir

332.4

50.7

281.7

15.25

White

2)       

Budhlada

92.71

52.61

40.1

56.75

White

3)       

Mansa

205.28

99.28

106

4.84

White

4)       

Bhikhi

79.82

61.41

18.41

76.94

Grey

5)       

Sardulgarh

25.28

20.25

5.03

80.1

Grey

TOTAL

735.49

284.25

451.24

38.65

White

MOGA

 

 

 

 

 

1)       

Baghpurana

131.1

312.04

-180.9

238.01

O.E.

2)       

Moga-2

131.7

177.31

-45.61

134.63

O.E.

3)       

Moga-1

98.83

298.31

-199.48

301.84

O.E.

4)       

Nihalsinghwala

65.14

287.2

-222.1

440.9

O.E.

TOTAL

426.77

1074.86

-648.09

251.86

O.E.

MUKTSAR

 

 

 

 

 

1)       

Kotbhai

197.48

29.33

168.15

14.85

White

2)       

Malout

304.1

21.3

282.8

7

White

3)       

Lambi

26.52

2.51

24.01

9.46

White

4)       

Muktsar

467.44

87.47

379.97

18.71

White

TOTAL

995.54

140.61

854.93

14.06

White

NAWANSHAHR

 

 

 

 

 

1)       

Banga

70.15

110.17

-40.02

157.04

O.E.

2)       

Nawanshahr

101.52

132.23

-30.71

130.56

O.E.

3)       

Aur

95.62

92.9

2.72

97.15

Dark

4)       

Balachaur

106.88

31.93

74.95

29.87

White

5)       

Saroya

22.31

17.54

4.77

78.61

Grey

TOTAL

396.48

384.77

11.71

97.46

Dark

PATIALA

 

 

 

 

 

1)       

Patiala

106.28

273.98

-167.7

257.79

O.E.

2)       

Bhunerheri

150.17

128.77

21.9

85.74

Dark

3)       

Nabha

264.4

313.93

-49.49

118.71

O.E.

4)       

Samana

163.8

143.96

19.84

87.88

Dark

5)       

Ghanaur

134.1

132.67

1.49

109.78

O.E.

6)       

Rajpura

104.38

147.22

-42.84

141.04

O.E.

7)       

Derabassi

89.16

54.26

34.9

60.85

White

8)       

Patran

61.78

135.17

-73.39

218.79

O.E.

9)       

Sanaur

91.21

113.97

-22.76

124.95

O.E.

TOTAL

1165.38

1443.43

-278.05

123.85

O.E.

ROPAR

 

 

 

 

 

1)       

ChamkaurSahib

103.96

60.38

43.58

58.08

White

2)       

Kharar

97.96

50.81

47.15

51.86

White

3)       

Ropar

154.81

36.14

118.67

23.34

White

4)       

Anandpursahib

57.16

4.2

52.96

7.34

White

5)       

Nurpur Bedi

50.02

21.25

28.77

142.44

O.E.

6)       

Sailbamajri

32.2

44.91

-12.71

139.47

O.E.

7)       

Morinda

51.33

65.62

-14.29

127.83

O.E.

TOTAL

547.44

283.31

264.13

51.75

White

SANGRUR

 

 

 

 

 

1)       

Bhawanigarh

97.79

193.25

-95.46

197.61

O.E.

2)       

Sangrur

130.32

209.42

-79.1

160.7

O.E.

3)       

Mahilkalan

157.42

159.53

-2.11

101.34

O.E.

4)       

Sunam

155.35

295.31

-139.96

190.93

O.E.

5)       

Sehna

151.52

128.04

23.48

84.5

Grey

6)       

Dhuri

65.83

127.85

-62.02

194.12

O.E.

7)       

Barnala

149.84

288.19

-138.35

192.33

O.E.

8)       

Ahmedgarh

106.21

204.21

-98

192.27

O.E.

9)       

Malerkotla

73.19

139.51

-66.32

190.61

O.E.

10)   

Lehragaga

62.67

82.91

-20.24

132.29

O.E.

11)   

Sherpur

69.36

113.53

-44.17

163.68

O.E.

12)   

Andana

73.69

72.72

0.97

100.1

O.E.

13)   

Amargarh

73.19

106.28

-33.09

145.21

O.E.

TOTAL

1366.38

2120.75

-754.37

155.21

O.E.

 

STATE TOTAL

16,372.96

16,101.95

271.01

98.34

 

 SUMMARY OF BLOCKS

O.E. Over Exploited

Total blocks

 

138

White blocks

(%age of development<65)

 

38

Grey blocks

(%age of development 65-85)

 

16

Dark blocks

(%age of development 85-100)

 

11

Over exploited blocks

(%age of development > 100)

73

            Majority of the area falling in north eastern part of the state falls under white category where tubewells can be constructed safely and there is no restriction on the ground water development. In saline areas, where ground water is fresh at places comprising south western districts namely Ferozepur, Faridkot, Muktsar, Bathinda and Mansa except 5 blocks the area falls under white category and tubewells can be constructed without having any adverse effect on the ground water regime and quality. The remaining blocks covering central part of the state falls under over exploited category and as such there is no scope for ground water development through construction of tubewells. 16 blocks which falls under Grey Category there is some scope for construction of tubewells with the caution that water levels may not fall further. There is no possibility of construction of tubewells in blocks falling under Dark category.