|DEPARTMENT OF SOIL & WATER CONSERVATION, PUNJAB|
UNDERGROUND PIPELINE SYSTEM
The main aim of preparing this success story is to highlight Underground Pipeline System (UGPS) as a model of effective implementation and delivery of public services by way of providing readily available technical advice to the farmers. Also, this success story intends to highlight special initiatives and significant achievements made by this department in this field. The purpose is to bring mass-awareness about the important of UGPS and its role in socio-economic Upliftment of the beneficiaries. The successful adoption of the Underground Pipeline System (UGPS) started before Green Revolution. In the year 1970-71, the situation of agriculture in the state was not very encouraging as the Gross Cropped Area in the state was only 5678 thousand hectares providing a production of mainly 5145 thousand Metric Tons of whet and 688 thousand Metric Tons of Rice. Also the state of available water utilization was below average as only 2888 thousand hectares area was irrigated till the year 1970-71. The Soil & Water Conservation department introduced an innovative and relevant technique for optimum and efficient utilization of irrigation water in the shape of UGPS. With some initial hiccups. This technique was not only popularly accepted but widely welcomed by the farmers of the state.
SUCCESS FACTORS/BENEFITS OF UGPS 35 years of experience of the department in the field of UGPS has revealed the numerous benefits accrued to the state and its farmers. The major benefits are by way of Land Saving and thus an increase in cultivated area. This benefit has further helped increase in Yield, Production and Socio-Economic Upliftment of the farmers. UGPS also helps in Saving of Energy, Fertilizer, Labour and Land Development. UGPS is a highly efficient system as it has helped in catching up the time gap of conventional irrigation system. The UGPS not only needs less number of tubewells/gensets but has also helped in Ground Water Utilization in many parts of the state.
SUCCESS HIGHLIGHTS The UGPS is being installed in the fields of Punjab farmers since 1967 and has played a significant role in Green Revolution. Till date, 12872 km of pipeline has been laid in Punjab state benefiting as area of 475282 ha (1188207 Acres). A Quantitative Analysis of the Accrued Benefits of UGPS is listed in the table below. From these figures, UGPS alone is helping the farmers and the state in an additional annual production of 16.63 Thousand Tons of Wheat and 23.76 Thousand Tons of Rice by saving of cultivable land to the tune of 8313 Acres, Even, Sufficient and Timely application of irrigation water is helping the state in an additional annual production of 118.82 Thousand Tons of Wheat and 166.35 Thousand Tons of Rice. UGPS has manage to save at least 1540 Million Cubic Meter of irrigation water annually. Also, 505 Million Units of Precious Electricity is being saved and 126.25 Lakh Man-days of labour is being saved every year. Therefore, at present, UGPS is helping the farmers and the state by generating an additional annual income of Rs. 463 Crores. Further, the Appreciation of land cost (at least @50%) by Rs. 50,000/- to Rs. 1,00,000/- Per Acre in the fields where UGPS is installed and Cost of land saved (at least 28 Sqm per Acre) by UGPS to the tune of Rs. 1400/- Per Acre (Considering Land Cost of Rs. 2 Lakh Per Acre), are over and above the mentioned benefits. Total area benefited by UGPS till date 475283 ha, i.e. 1188207 Acres
Quantitative analysis of the benefits accrued from UGPS
WATER HARVESTING STRUCTURE, VILLAGE: NADA, ROPAR
A water harvesting structure has been constructed across the Nada Khud, one kilometer up stream of Nada village. The total catchment area of the project is 125 hect. And command area is 105 hect. Total height of the water harvesting structure is 12.50 meter. The gross storage capacity of reservoir is 37.81 hect. Mt. out of which 34.87 hect. Mt. Is live storage. The total cost of project is 16.80 lacs. It irrigates 105 hect. of land with three live saving irrigation 10 cm each during rabi season. Total length of conveyance system is 5.6 Kms. With the construction of water harvesting structure Nada and closing of the donor catchment , the micro climate has been improved and also resulted in substantial increase in bio-mass. Due to improved ecology of locality, the low canopy vegetation like babbar grass which disappeared as a result of degradation, heavy grazing, soil erosion and low moisture have started coming up due to seepage and percolation of water in the reservoir there is on upward trend in the ground water table. Nearly 125 hect. of sloppy uneven rugged area have been leveled and brought under terraces to receive irrigation from the water harvesting structure by the farmers themselves or through the department. Water disposal structure have been provided to drain out excess run off. Due to construction of water harvesting structure about 125 hect. of land which used to be part of the choe has been brought under bio-mass production.
Before construction of water harvesting structure farmers used to grow local varieties without the application of fertilizer, insecticides and pesticides, during rabi season farmers used to grow wheat, gram, taramira and sarson and during kharif maize and sorgum. The crop yield were very poor and farmers has to purchase the food grains for own consumption and fodder for cattle. The yield pattern is given in the table below:-
POST DEVELOPMENT STATUS
With the availability of live saving irrigation farmers have started using improved agronomic practices like improved seeds, fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides, weedicides and mechanism in farming has come up. With the result the crop yield have increased many folds and the farmers have surplus food grains for marketing and sufficient fodder for cattle the changed crop yield pattern in shown in the table below:-
MAKKOWAL PERENNIAL FLOW SYSTEM
INTRODUCTION Makkowal is situated in the foot hills of Shivaliks and is located 310 48’ N and 750 49’ E in agro-climatic region on Hoshiarpur Talwara defence road, about 30 Kms from Hoshiarpur. The habitation of 300 households has an area of approx. 600 acres. The topography of the area is uneven. The eastern side of the village is hilly terrain and the western part of the village has leveled lands, slope varying from 1-3 percent. Soils vary from sandy to sandy loam and are good for agriculture. Here agriculture is totally dependent on rains. The water table is very deep and underground water lifting is uneconomical and beyond the reach of the farmers. The annual rainfall is approx. 1000 mm and 90 percent of it is received during monsoon period. The lands are subject to heavy soil erosion and frequent crop failures occur due to droughts and critic rainfall.
PROBLEMS Scarcity of water is a major problem in the village. It was known that there was a 320 feet deep well in the village Sunk is beginning of century with water table at 270 ft. Later on this well also caved in. There were other wells about 2 Km. away near the upstream where the water was available through out the year. The people had to fetch water from the well for their daily requirement. Later on villagers with their own efforts connected this well with the village pond through a G.I. pipe line of 1.5” dia and water was continuously flowing under gravity into this pond. This arrangement also could not last long due to poor maintenance. The agriculture remained at subsistence level due to risk factors involved and modern agriculture techniques were not adopted.
PROJECT The Project as envisaged by the Soil and Water Conservation and Waste Land Development Department, in view of water needs of the people for irrigation and other purposes, looking to the availability of water from wells, near the upstreams. Water in these wells was available throughout the year and water level remained constant in spite of regular flow of underground water from these wells. To tap this natural flow for irrigation purpose was the object of this scheme. There are strictly existed four wells near the stream. These wells were connected with each other by Cement Concrete pipes and water was taken through a 6” diameter cement concrete pipe line upto the village pond. The length of this pipe is 1692 meters and it was laid giving it a grade so that the water would flow under gravity from the wells to the pond. The village pond was renovated with the capacity of storing 2.4 hectare meter of water. From the pond a network of underground pipe line was laid down to distribute the water to the fields for irrigation purpose. The main objective was to provide irrigation to the crops at critical periods only when crops would have been affected by the dry spell. It was not envisaged that irrigation would be provided in optimal quantities. It was also conceived that availability of irrigation water will motivate the farmers to grow high yielding varieties, to use chemical fertilizers and other non conventional inputs, which will help to improve productivity and raise income to alleviate poor economic conditions of the farmers of the command area. The scheme had 100 hectares under its command to provide irrigation at a total cost of Rs.5, 02,500 only. The per acre expenditure worked out to be Rs. 2100/- only. The scheme was taken up in 1987-88 and cent percent subsidized for the farmers.
USE OF INPUTS As the raising of crops were rainfed prior to the implementation of the scheme, the farmers did not use fertilizers, high yielding varieties and weedicides etc. Only F.Y.M. was applied in raising the crops that too subject to the availability with the individual farmers. With the availability of irrigation water the farmers have started using high yielding varieties of seeds of maize and wheat. Use of chemical fertilizers, weedicides and pesticides has also started after the execution of the project. There is substantial increase in fertilizers and chemicals use. To control weeds and pests, weedicides and other chemicals are being used now by the farmers. In nutshell, it is noted that with the execution of this project higher use of non conventional inputs, fertilizers, weedicides, pesticides and human labour and energy has started for higher productivity of crops.
From the above it is evident that there is overall increase in the productivity of all the crops which can be attributed to the assured irrigation and higher use of input like fertilizers, chemicals and energy.
SAHORAN KANDI WATERSHED PROJECT
INTRODUCTION The watershed of village Sahoran is located in foothills of Shivaliks in Dasuya block of Hoshiarpur Distt. This watershed was taken under National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas for integrated development. The Sahoran Kandi watershed covers the area falling in villages of Sahoran Kandi, Siprian & Jagiyal. The total geographical area of watershed is 3743ha. out of which 2110ha. is arable and 1633ha. is non arable. The annual rainfall is 1100-1200mm , 80% of which is received in monsoon period but water holding capacity of these soils is very poor.
PROBLEMS Land is degraded and is susceptible to erosion with heavy sedimentation water is lost in run-off. The ground water is deep and scarce. Fertility is very low especially in macronutrients. Fuel and fodder shortages are active in area and crop production is very low in the area.
PROJECT The implementation of the project is done through Watershed Development Committee and Village Mittar Kisan Mandals. Activities in project include Drainage Line Treatment, Stream Bank Stabilization, Dry Land Horticulture, Crop Demonstration of improved cereal and fodder crops and household activities. To reduce soil erosion and to control runoff, loose boulder structures with or without vegetative support check dams and spurs wre constructed in drainage lines. 95 dugout ponds for harvesting rain water with storage capacity of 36hect.mtr. were constructed to provide drinking water to animals and for other household purposes. The farmers were made aware of new techniques of cultivation, Frequent training camps were organized. The good quality seeds of maize, wheat & fodder crops were distributed. Agro forestry was also given the priority and 18600 Nos. of plants of Amla, Date, Suh Babool, Kikar, Sarin etc. were planted. To improve condition of landless people small household activities were given assistance like providing cobbler kits, carpenter and blacksmith tool kits to help earn them a livelihood.
IMPACT The impact of NWDPRA programme is very fruitful and useful for the farmers of watershed. Yields of major crops i.e. Wheat, Maize & Fodder increased by 30%of the pre-project yield. Milk production has also increased by 25%. Horticulture production increased by 30%. Project activities were undertaken to slow down and reverse ecological degradation and to improve production and income from arable and non arable areas. These activities have promoted vegetative growth which have stabilized gullies. The villagers meet their daily requirements of fuel wood, fodder and water from the assets created by the project. The ground water table of watershed have come up approximately by 2.5mts. after implementation of project thereby increasing value and fertility of land.
Fatehpur Kangar Sub-watershed is located in the Shivaliks foothills falling in Mahilpur block of Hoshiarpur district. It is one of the 106 sub-watersheds comprising Kandi area, which forms about 10% of the total geographical area of the state. Like all other watersheds falling in this region, the Fatehpur Kangar Sub-watershed also has degraded undulating lands, poor soils, scarce availability of groundwater for irrigation. Erratic and non-uniform rainfall results in flash floods leading to severe soil erosion and damage to life & property during rainy season. The agricultural lands in the watershed are totally rainfed having very low production level, the inhabitants being economically poor. The total area under sub-watershed is 3626 hectares, out of which 48% is arable area and 52% is non-arable area. The total population of 11 villages which fall in the watershed is 6377 and the livestock population is 1252. The total number of families in the watershed is 1485 and the average land holding of cultivable land is less than 1 hectare.
PROBLEMS The area is undulating. The arable areas have about 3% to 6% slope and hilly areas with 10% to 25% slope. The soils are poor and texture of soil varies from coarse to medium. There are about 5 major drainage tributaries which originate from the hills and join below in one stream. The average rainfall is about 1000mm out of which 90% is received during monsoon period and that too in the form of heavy intense showers which results in heavy soil erosion and damage to land. The groundwater is very deep and beyond the capacity of small farmer for developing it for irrigation. The area, being entirely rainfed, face frequent crop failures, do not produce enough to meet the local requirement. The economic condition of the farmers is very poor.
DRAINAGE PROJECT VILLAGE MEHATPUR ULADHANI
Tehsil Balachaur, District Nawanshahar, Punjab.
INTRODUCTION The village Mehatpur Uladhani, situated on the left side of Bist-doab canal, 7 Kms from Balachaur town on the Balachaur-Nawanshahar road, tells a story of negative aspects of modern development projects and vigourisities of nature if not cared timely by man. A patch of about 300 acres once a very fertile land, has turned into marshy and wasteland because of construction of Bist-doab canal during British period. This canal brought progressiveness to thousands of hectares at a cost of villages like Mehatpur Uladhani which happened to be situated along the canal sides. The direct seepage flow from the canal and absence of any natural outlet made this chunk of land water-logged and marshy making it unfit for raising crops. The problem aggravated due to rise in the bed level of river Sutlej because of depositions which resulted in the back sub-surface flow from the river to the village side. The problem of rise in water table became so acute that during most of the year, it remained under submerged conditions thus making cultivation in this land almost impossible. The land owners out of shear compulsions used to take risks of raising paddy crops that too in some higher patches which also normally remained unsuccessful if rainy season prolonged. Once in a while during driest years, they were able to get some yields enough only to sustain themselves.
CONCEPTION The studies like hydraulic conductivity of the soils were undertaken and it was found that soils are highly permeable and water can easily be drained out from these soils, but the farmers of lower areas would not allow the water to be disposed in Charan drain as its bed has been cultivated by them. A number of meetings with the farmers of affected area and the farmers of other villages from where the drain passes, were held. An agreement reached that drained water should be given to lower lands for irrigation and only surplus water should be released into drain. Thus, this project was modified to use drained water for irrigating lands of unaffected farmers by laying a pipeline. Thereafter, in the project, a component for development of fisheries was also incorporated for which drained out water was to be utilized for filling fish ponds.
PROJECT DETAILS It was studied that surface drainage system to lower down the water table below the root zone will not be effective and therefore sub-surface drainage system was found more suitable to solve the problem of water-logging in this area. Topographical Piezometeric studies were carried out and surface & water contours were drawn. A Harring-bone sub-surface drainage system was designed. PVC perforated pipes of 110mm diameter and 7575 metre length were laid as lateral pipes for collecting water at a depth of about 1.50 to 1.75 mtrs below surface. The spacing between adjacent lateral pipes is 90 metre. A Collector pipe of RCC, having diameter varying from 300 mm to 400 mm and length of 1440 metre, was laid which collected water from the laterals and ultimately discharged it into a Sump Well, built in the lower project area. From Sump Well, an RCC pipe 133m long of 250mm diameter was laid to carry the water to nearby fields for providing irrigation. A Diversion Box was provided on the bank of Charan drain to discharge surplus water, if any, in the drain. A Pump House was constructed on Sump Well and two diesel pumping sets of 8 hp each have been installed for lifting water from the Sump Well. Although the entire system of collection of water in the Sump Well and discharging to the Charan drain has been designed with gravitational flow taking advantage of the slope of the area and by giving appropriate gradients to the pipes, still the pumping arrangement was provided to lower the water upto 1.5 metres depth, which otherwise is automatically lowered to 1 metre with natural gravitational flow. Two fish tanks of size 50mX30mX3.5m each were constructed near the sump well for raising fisheries. These fish tanks also get filled with gravitational flow.
PROJECT COST The project was executed in the year 1996 and at that time the total cost of the project was 30.25 lakhs. Out of which, 25.50 lakhs was for sub-surface drainage project, 1.75 lakhs for fisheries and 3 lakhs for pump house, pumping equipment & pipeline for irrigation.
Post-development Scenario With the implementation of the project, the water table has lowered upto 4 to 6 feet and soils have again been reclaimed for raising crops. The normal cropping system is Wheat, Paddy and Sugarcane in the fields. Fodder & Sunflower crops are also being taken. The area has been completely rehabilitated and per hectare produce is equivalent to other developed parts of the state.